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Friday, March 6, 2009

Sabbath Laws

Reading: Exodus 23:10-12

Laws like those set out in this passage are why I love Exodus. I like to imagine what the world would be like if we still followed these laws.

There are two very important things introduced in verse 11. Firstly, we see the beginning of crop rotation practices. Every seven years the crops were to lie fallow to give the land rest. With today's understanding of agriculture crop rotation has become a science and we can avoid leaving the land fallow by alternating between different crops - for example growing lucern in between crops of cereals as the lucern fixes nitrogen into the soil which these crops use a lot of. However this law was a way of teaching the Israelites to respect the land and preventing the degradation that can occur when land is overused. By allowing the crops to lie fallow the soil was given a chance to recover from cropping.

The second exciting thing in this verse is the second reason given for leaving the land fallow every seven years -to provide food for the poor and the animals. The Bible makes specific provision for the feeding of animals through this verse. I think this verse is chastening in light of the way we often try to exclude animals from our bounty. The drought has hit hard not only on people but on animals, yet in our desire to scrape a profit animals often become the enemy. Some farmers have even been given licenses to kill endangered species if they are 'threatening their crops'; yet they are starving too. Similar issues surround water supplies, with wild animals being prevented from accessing what may be the only water in the area. The Bible doesn't say we should let animals have all our crops, but I think it suggests it is fair to allow animals some food; and I would argue especially in the drought.

In verse twelve we have a repeat of the Sabbath day law, with a specific mention of beasts of burden being given rest, not just humans. God's rest and love is for all creatures.

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Some Interesting questions

Reading: Exodus 22:1-15

My family were watching Grey's Anatomy earlier. I was appalled by the treatment of the pigs in the show. They are stabbed to provide interns with some live flesh to practice surgery on. Then at the end, after they have spent hours trying to save the pigs (the interns were almost as appalled as I was) they are convinced to put them down in order to save them the pain they would be caused by the months of recuperation necessary after what they have been through. I realise I am touching on very controversial ground here, but I just find it interesting how we have such different priorities with humans and animals. With a human life is sacred and paramount. We can put someone through years of painful rehabilitation without hesitation but letting them die is practically never an option. In contrast, with animals it is prevention of pain that seems to be sacred. We are ok if you kill an animal, as long as it is 'humane'. It is the conditions animals are kept in before they become our food that concerns us, not the fact that they are being raised simply to be killed for our food. We think it is awful to torture an animal, but it is seen as better to kill it - as long as it is as painless as possible. I wonder where exactly this double standard comes from.

So, today's reading. The first time you look at it you might just go ok, I have never stolen anyone else's animals so this reading is not applicable to me, or today's society. Actually there are quite a few gems in this passage.

I want to propose something in reference to v1 and 14. Psalm 50:10-11 says that all animals are the Lord's. Therefore, when we catch an animal, for example a fish; from the ocean we are taking something that belongs to the Lord. It is a wild animal, we have had no part in raising it, but we are taking it. This may not be stealing, but in v14 the passage says that if you borrow something (as stewards, we are essentially borrowing the earth from God) and it is injured or dies, we must 'make it good'. Fishing is an exploitative practice, which does not make it good- as the overfishing crisis makes clear. I may be stretching it, but I believe these verses would support a philosophy of giving back to the environment more than we take from it. To continue the fish example, perhaps we should raise fish fry to replace the stocks we take, or at the very least provide enough marine reserves that the fish actually have a chance to reproduce successfully.

v2 is also very interesting in light of our current laws which allow a thief breaking into your house who harms himself to sue you for compensation. Talk about ridiculous.

Finally, v6 is interesting in light of the recent Victorian fires- many of which were lit by arsonists. I believe we all hope they make 'restitution'.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Salt and Light - Issue Two

Salt and Light Issue 2 Five Leaf Church Greening Initiative Newsletter ―We believe that Creation Care is a core Christian responsibility” The aim of this Newsletter is to provide a supportive and informative link between individuals and groups that share a care and christian responsibility for our environment. You are on this newsletter list because you have expressed an interest in the Five Leaf Eco-Awards program or have communicated with the National Coordinator - Jessica Morthorpe. Contents
 Letter from the Editor
 Update on Five Leaf
 Volunteers wanted!
 Doom and Gloom
 Tips of the month
 A Stirring of Hope
 Quotes of the month
 Websites to visit
 Call for churches to participate in trial
 Call for submissions
Letter from the Editor: Greetings everyone, I hope this newsletter finds you all well. In this issue you will find an update on Five Leaf's activities at the Sustainable Living Festival in Melbourne, latest news and some information about the endangered Orangutan and how you can help to reduce their movement towards extinction by avoiding palm oil products. News wrap-up:
First and most exciting for Canberra residents, the ACT solar feed-in tarriff was introduced on the 1st of March1. Owners of solar panels will receive abouot 50c per kilowatt hour (four times the normal cost of electricity) for every kilowatt they produce, including what they use.This is great news for homeowners and small businesses with small solar panel systems who can expect to be paid around $2000 a year for the energy they produce2.
In other good news, researchers at the ANU have developed a solar powered air-conditioning system. As well as being environmentally friendly this new system has the potential to prevent blackouts caused by air-conditioner use during heatwaves overloading the system. The solar air-conditioner will also provide heating in winter and solar hot water3.
In mixed news, scientists have discovered that fish play a vital role in maintaining the PH of the oceans. The ocean absorbs massive amounts of carbon dioxide each year (the main reason runaway climate change has not started earlier), but this causes it to become more acidic. By excreting Calcium Carbonate, the masses of fish in the ocean combat this acidity, helping us to fight climate change4. I say this is mixed news because in the light of our massive overfishing crisis, not to mention the havoc we are wreaking on marine ecosystems by massacreing sharks, I think we have just found this ally against climate change in time to miss them as they disappear.
In even less encouraging news, Environment Minister Peter Garrett has refused to set up a captive breeding program for the tiny Christmas Island Pipistrelle Bat due to its tiny population. He is trialling captive breeding of a related species in the Northern Territory but experts fear that even if the program is successful it will be too late and say the government has given up to easily on the species. If the species goes extinct in four months as feared it will be the first mammal species to go extinct in Australia since 19565.
In other depressing news, I am sure you have heard by now of the massive oil spill in South East Queensland after a tanker was damaged in a storm. Not only is the coast covered in heavy grade fuel oil which is fatal if inhaled, releases hydrogen sulphide as it breaks down and can cause a host of health problems; but containers holding 600 tonnes of ammonium nitrate fertilizer are also missing somewhere off the coast. This is a tragedy and environmentalists are waiting anxiously for the results of the clean up.6
To cheer you up I have some news that has me very excited- the movie Sharkwater, a masterpiece of exciting and spectacular documentary film making, has been released on DVD in Australia. I think everyone needs to see this movie; not only to learn about the global plight of our shark species but also to learn about how we are endangering our planet more generally. I can't praise this movie enough. Beg, borrow or steal a copy and if you can't find one, I can loan you mine to show at your church's next movie night.
3 4
5 6 AMCS email “Oil Spill Disaster for South-east Queensland” sent 13/3/09

Lastly, don't forget about Earth Hour on Saturday the 28th. At 8:30pm turn all lights off at home or work. And use candles instead. Last year I attended Earth Hour at the ANU where they had a giant earth made out of candles on the oval. I then wandered around the city and saw many restaurants had switched to candles for the night. It was great to see. I would also encourage churches to keep their lights off on Sunday morning (29th) in support of the Hour and the fight against climate change.
Yours Sincerely,
Jessica Morthorpe National Church Project Coordinator Five Leaf Eco-Awards
Update on Five Leaf
On the 20-22nd of February Jessica attended the Sustainable Living Festival in Melbourne on behalf of Five Leaf. The festival was an eye opening and fantastic experience with exhibitors and people showing up in droves to learn about how to act more sustainably and to share what they have learnt. It was amazing to see so many volunteers, ideas and groups in attendance. There were bike powered smoothies, environmentally friendly printing companies, fair trade organisations, animal rights groups, national parks associations, and devices to save water, energy, food – you name it. She also met with Nick Ray from the Ethical Consumer Group; see the reviews to learn more.
Five Leaf collected a lot of information and resources that are available to churches on request. There have also been meetings around strategic planning for the organisation and the organisation's first Green Bibles have arrived and been given to churches.
Volunteers Wanted!
Positions Currently Available:
Melbourne Church Project Coordinator (Melbourne)
This position will work under the National Church Project Coordinator to run the Five Leaf Programs within the Melbourne area. This will involve supporting the two churches currently involved in the pilot award program and getting additional churches involved.
If you care about Christianity and the environment you will love this position. Not only does it give you a real chance to make a significant difference, but as one of the first staff, you will be able to influence the direction and creation of the organisation.
The chosen candidate will undergo training with the National Church Project Coordinator. The Melbourne Coordinator will then be responsible for all activities of the organisation in Melbourne.
The volunteer will need to work from home and must have access to the internet. Regular travel around Melbourne to visit churches will be involved. Some professional training may also be provided depending on funding.
Victorian and ACT Ministry Team
Additional volunteers are also needed to assist the Melbourne and Canberra Church Project Coordinators in running the Five Leaf Eco-Awards and with various projects.
Marketing Research Assistant
A volunteer is needed to assist with a marketing research program to direct the development of Five Leaf. Working with the National Church Project Coordinator this assistant will conduct extensive interviews and surveys of church members and leaders and assist in developing the strategic marketing plan. Experience in social marketing would be ideal but training can be provided. Applicant should be sociable, dedicated and eager to learn. Location negotiable.
For more information on any of these positions contact Jessica at:
Doom and Gloom
“A society is measured by the way it treats those at its mercy. If we allow our closest living relatives to go extinct during our generation we will diminish all humanity.‖ Leif Cocks, President of the AOP (Australian Orangutan Project).
AOP's mission statement
" To ensure the survival of both Sumatran and Bornean orangutan species in their natural habitat and promote the welfare of all orangutans "
The Orangutan is under severe threat! For years now the predictions have been grim for our closest living relatives but now their position in the world is vanishing, along with their habitat. 300 soccer fields per hour of rainforest are being cut down for palm plantations due to illegal logging.
Wild orangutan declining more sharply in Sumatra and Borneo than thought
Created 7th Jul 2008
Science Daily July 3, 2008
Endangered wild orangutan (Pongo spp) populations are declining more sharply in Sumatra and Borneo than previously estimated, according to new findings published this month by Great Ape Trust of Iowa scientist Dr. Serge Wich and other orangutan conservation experts in Oryx – The International Journal of Conservation. Conservation action essential to survival of orangutans, found only on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, must be region-specific to address the different ecological threats to each species, said Wich and his co-authors, a pre-eminent group of scientists, conservationists, and representatives of governmental and non-governmental groups. They convened in Jakarta, Indonesia, in January 2004 to address the threats to orangutan survival and develop new assessment models to guide conservation planning. New orangutan population estimates revealed in the July issue of Oryx reflect those improvements in assessment methodology – including standardized data collection, island-wide surveys, and better sharing of data among stakeholders – rather than dramatic changes in the number of surviving orangutans. The experts’ revised estimates put the number of Sumatran orangutans (P. abelii) around 6,600 in 2004. This is lower than previous estimates of 7,501 as a result of new findings that indicate that a large area in Aceh that was previously thought to contain orangutans actually does not. Since forest loss in Aceh has been relatively low from 2004 to 2008, the 2004 estimate is probably not much higher than the actual number in 2008. The 2004 estimate of about 54,000 Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) is probably also higher than the actual number today as there has been a 10 percent orangutan habitat loss in the Indonesian part of Borneo during that period. ―It is clear that the Sumatran orangutan is in rapid decline and unless extraordinary efforts are made soon, it could become the first great ape species to go extinct,‖ Wich et al. wrote. ―Although these revised estimates for Borneo are encouraging, forest loss and associated loss of orangutans are occurring at an alarming rate, and suggest that recent reductions of Bornean orangutan populations have been far more severe than previously supposed.‖ The new numbers underscore important issues in orangutan conservation. With improved sharing of data and deeper collaborations among stakeholders, the experts determined that 75 percent of all orangutans live outside of national parks, which have been severely degraded by illegal logging, mining, encroachment by palm oil plantations and fires due to a general lack of enforcement by regulatory authorities, who are either unable or reluctant to implement conservation management strategies. However, some recent conservation successes – keyed on political and financial support, media attention and advocacy by conservationists – offer cause for cautious optimism that illegal logging in protected areas can be effectively reduced and improved management of protected areas can be attained, according to the experts. ―It is essential that conservation measures are taken to protect orangutans outside national parks, and these measures will by necessity be specific to each region,‖ Wich et al. wrote. The experts reported positive signs that forest conservation is gaining prominence as a political agenda. For example, habitat loss has stabilized in some parts of Sumatra with a temporary logging moratorium in the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, where most of the island’s orangutans occur, both in and out of national parks. Opportunities also exist to develop reduced-impact logging systems on the island of Borneo, where most orangutans live in forests already exploited for timber. Although other threats to orangutan survival exist, such as hunting in agricultural areas where human-orangutan conflicts exist, the biggest by far is forest destruction associated with the burgeoning palm oil industry in Indonesia and Malaysia. Together, they are the world’s largest palm oil producers with a combined global market share of 80.5 percent. Rapid expansion of the palm oil industry coupled with poor land-use planning are further pressuring forests and the orangutans who depend on them for survival. For example, in Sumatra, the controversial Ladia Galaska road project in the Leuser Ecosystem will, unless halted, fragment two of the three largest remaining orangutan populations, Wich et al. wrote. A similar project in 1982 split the Gunung Leuser National Park, and the improved access facilitated uncontrolled illegal settlements inside the park, large-scale illegal encroachment and logging, and poaching of threatened species. Also cited as an example of faulty land-use planning was a mega rice project, funded primarily by Indonesia’s reforestation fund, which eliminated 10,000 square kilometers of peat swamp forest and killed an estimated 15,000 orangutans from 1996 to 1999. ―Both are examples of ill-advised projects with few benefits to local economies but major environmental costs,‖ Wich et al. wrote. ―However, as such projects provide substantial revenue for a small group of individuals with considerable political influence, unprecedented political will is needed to prevent similar projects in the future.‖ The experts’ report includes sweeping recommendations for: * Effective law enforcement and prosecution to stop hunting orangutans for food and trade; * Mechanisms to mitigate and reduce human-orangutan conflict in agricultural areas, including large-scale plantations; * The development of an auditing process to assess the compliance of forestry concessions to their legal obligation to ensure orangutans are not hunted in concession areas; * Increased environmental awareness at the local level, following examples set by the Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Program and the Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Project that promote awareness of conservation of forests and the importance of biodiversity; * Development of mechanisms to monitor orangutan populations and forest cover, building on those in place on both Borneo and Sumatra;
* Continuation of surveys in less explored regions; and * Continued improvement of survey methodology to include nest-decay rates. ―All efforts to monitor orangutans, however, will be to no avail unless the decline in numbers is halted, and this requires a change in political will,‖ Wich et al wrote. ―It is essential that funding for environmental services reaches the local level and that there is strong law enforcement. Developing a mechanism to ensure these occur is the challenge for the conservation of orangutans.‖ Great Ape Trust Director of Conservation Dr. Benjamin Beck said the paper makes a significant contribution to orangutan conservation discussion. ―First, we have an unambiguous, scientifically rigorous answer when regulators and policymakers ask us how many orangutans really remain, and how that compares to historical population sizes,‖ Beck said. ―Those responsible for environmental stewardship cannot hide indecisively behind purported scientific uncertainty. ―Second, those answers are the results of pooled knowledge of nearly two dozen high-profile investigators who set aside their own professional reputations and agendas to collect data in a standardized format and share the results for a very high, common priority: the literal survival of the species that they study and love,‖ Beck continued. ―In addition to being a critical contribution to orangutan conservation, this paper is an exemplar of collaboration among conservation scientists and practitioners.‖ Dr. Rob Shumaker, director of orangutan research at Great Ape Trust, said Wich’s paper is historically important and verifies the crisis situation for wild orangutans. ―This represents enormous amounts of work from the authors and demonstrates their commitments to the science of orangutan conservation,‖ he said. ―It’s a particularly notable achievement for Dr. Wich and continues his extraordinary dedication to the study of orangutans. ―It is my fervent hope that these data inspire action on the part of everyone who can positively affect orangutan conservation.‖ In addition to his responsibilities at Great Ape Trust, Wich is co-manager of orangutan research at Sumatra’s Ketambe Research Center.
Science Daily July 3/08 date accessed 4/3/09
Monthly Action Tips
Helping you buy responsibly – Palm oil free alternatives
We often receive inquiries from concerned individuals asking what they can do to in the battle to save the orangutan. Many have heard about palm oil and don’t want to be complicit in fuelling demand for the product which is decimating the orangutan’s habitat.
However it is not always easy to identify products with palm oil. Under Food Standards Australia New Zealand requirements, it is sufficient to have vegetable oil in the list of ingredients on the packet, even though the product contains palm oil. As a rule of thumb, if the saturated fat content is about 50%, there is a good chance that the vegetable oil will in fact be palm oil.
Another thing to watch out for on the ingredients list is margarine. If the product contains margarine, it is highly likely that the margarine will have been derived from palm oil.
Additives and agents such as emulsifiers (E471 is a common one), while a small component of the overall product, can also be derived from palm oil.
Other names to keep an eye out for that could be or be derived from palm oil are cocoa butter equivalent (CBE), cocoa butter substitute (CBS), palm olein and palm stearine. In non-food products like soaps and detergents, the list includes elaeis guineensis, sodium lauryl sulphate, cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, isopropyl and other palmitates, steareth-2, steareth-20 and fatty alcohol sulphates – all of which may be derived from palm oil.
Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) Australia @2008 BOS Australia, date accessed 1/3/09
Save Gorillas by recycling your mobile phone
―HOW many mobile phones does it take to save the life of an endangered gorilla? You would be surprised to know how few. Recycling just 500 mobile phones could pay the wages of an anti-poaching ranger for a whole year, and a ranger can save the lives of dozens of gorillas — maybe even help save the species from extinction.
And if the 9 million mobiles sold in Australia each year were eventually recycled, that would, at $2 a phone, provide $4.5 million for gorilla conservation efforts in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The opportunity, and the problem, for the survival of the eastern lowland gorilla is the mining of coltan. A small amount of minerals derived from coltan ore is used in every mobile phone made. But with about 1 billion phones sold globally each year, that makes for a lot of mining. And the mines are in the habitat of the endangered gorilla.‖
Janae Houghton, Want to save a gorilla? It's your call, The Age, January 4, 2009,
A Stirring of Hope
Summary of Guardians of the electric reef
by Porteous, James, ECOS magazine Towards a sustainable future, Guardians of the electric reef, p 10 and 12, 147 Feb-Mar 2009
In Bali's idylic north-west corner, a unique community-driven marine conservation project is using electricity to rapidly regrow damaged coral reef and restore local livelihoods. Might this technology and its profound success be a route to helping save the Earth's vital coral gardens.(p10)
The Biorock Process, a new reef restoration technolgy developed by Dr Thomas Goreau a dedicated activist for the importance of the world's reefs and the late Professor Wolf Hilbertz who was an architect, marine scientist and inventor has given hope to the struggling reefs and their communities world wide. The community at Pemuteran, five hours north of Denpasar, Indonesia have survived off their reef for generations whether by fishing or the tourism it attracts. The reef was a hit spot for divers but less than ten years ago the situation was dire. The Asian Economic Crisis in 1998 spurred massive bursts of over-harvesting, bleaching, cyanide poisoning and unsafe fishing methods by the poorer community, leaving the reef destroyed.
So, by 2000 the local community became worried about the condition of the reef because it effectively ran their livelihoods and Dr Goureau and Professor Hilbertz were asked to try their method. The Biorock Process works by sending electrical currents through the seawater to submerged structures that then crystalises the dissolved minerals and speeds up the growth of coral skeletons and shell-bearing animals. It is said to speed up the process by up to two to six times the natural regrouth rate. The process can even be powered by environmentally friendly power such as; tidal, wind power and photovoltaic solar panels.
There is now about fifty of these structures off shore that are quickly returning the reef to its former glory and the locals seeing the success have launched themselves fully into the reefs recuperation. Local businesses have helped with the finance and now that the program is set up it has even employed locals by training them to dive and employing them to help maintain the coral reef.
The success of the Pemuteran community is a clear example that there is not being enough done to preserve the world's reefs. Dr Goureau has said that, “Those who see it are absolutely amazed...” And that, “Those who have not seeen these projects continue to deny that they are possible.”
“We have already lost most of the world's corals and there is little time left to restore damaged reefs before they vanish. But the head-in-the-sand attitude of the governments and funding agencies has resulted in denial-n of both the problems and solutions- and blocking of funds by the international community to help coastal fishing communities in poor countries to grow back their rapidly vanishing living resources.”
Quotes of the month
“It seems to me that the issue of conservation of the natural world is something that can unite humanity, if the people know enough about it, and we can be persuaded to change the way in which we behave- that gross materialism and the search for material wealth are not the only things in life.”
David Attenborough, Planet Earth the Future, p234
“I fail or succeed in my stewardship of life in proportion to how conviced I am that life belongs to God.” Pearl Bartel “When you are besieging a town and the war drags on, do not destroy the trees... they are not enemies to be attacked!” Bible, Deuteronomy 20:19 Websites to Visit: Ethical Consumer Group Website This great little website will help you reduce your impact next time you hit the shops. Ever stood in the supermarket and been frustrated by wanting to buy more ethical products but having no idea how to pick them out? Too much hard work to research everything before you buy it? Never fear, this awesome group has done all the hard work for you. Order one of the fantastic little pocket guides to make the best choice in whatever product you want to purchase. Evangelical Environment Network website and Creation Care magazine
This is a great site connecting faith and the environment. It has climate change updates; fact sheets and ideas of how to inspire congregations and communities to help the environment with handy tips for bible study sessions and examples from scripture.
The website also has archives of their Creation Care magazine. This is a fantastic resource and great reading.
This website is really worth exploring, have a good look.
Call for Churches to participate in Five Leaf Eco-Awards trial
This is an invitation to all church communities to have a go at trialling the Five Leaf Eco-Awards program in their church and help save creation. Please email for more information.
Call for Submissions
If your church has already begun working towards sustainability please contact Jessica Morthorpe ( and feel free to send in any photos. They will be published on The Crown of Thorns blog and you will also be eligible for an encouragement award.
Please feel free to pass this newletter on to any individual or group who may be interested.
If you wish to unsubscribe from this newsletter email

Sunday, March 1, 2009

Animal Control Laws

Reading: Exodus 21: 28-36

Hey everyone, sorry about the delay - I got rather caught up with the start of uni.

This reading is challenging, I would love to know what you think. An ox who kills someone should be put to death, but only if it has a history of violence is the owner liable.

This is an issue that connects with our deepest emotions and fears. Humans have a pathological fear of being eaten. This is illustrated in our often irrational fear of species we think might hurt us. At the moment there is a frenzy of worry going on about sharks with probably imagined increases in numbers and changes in diet blamed for what is seen as a spate of attacks recently. Statistically it is illogical to fear sharks. You are 300 times more likely to be killed by a bee sting. Not to mention in a car crash. When people begin seriously fearing their cars I will think about excusing their irrational desire to kill sharks if that is what it takes to get them away from them.

However sharks bring up an interesting question about this passage. The example used in the Bible is an ox, a domestic animal. Does this mean the same ruling does or doesn't apply to sharks? Can the shark be blamed when we know it is a calculated risk to enter their habitat? Personally I have always applauded victims and their families mature enough to not seek revenge by demanding the death of the shark after an attack, but you may disagree with me. (I also think that the travelling behaviour seen in Great White Sharks makes it quite possible that the wrong shark would be killed anyway)

What if the animal involved in an attack happens to be an endangered species? Does that make a difference to how we feel? In the light of the Bible passage, should it?

Important Lessons from the Bible

Why Jesus came:
"that the world might be saved through him"
John 3:17

Who Jesus is going to use to save the world:
"For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God."
Romans 8:19

Our role on earth:
"The LORD God put the man in the Garden of Eden to take care of it and to look after it."
Genesis 2:15

The Five Pillars of A Christian Theology of Sustainability

1. God is the creator, sustainer and redeemer of creation.

2. Covenantal Stewardship (we have a covenant with God as stewards of the earth).

3. The creation-fall-redemption paradigm (God made a good world; human failure broke the relationships between god, man and creation; Christ provides hope for all creation).

4.Bodily resurrection(we will rise with bodies, not as spirits)

5.New Creation (a new Heaven and new Earth refers to a renewal and an earthing of heaven, not starting over).

Adapted from When Enough is Enough: A Christian Framework for Environmental Sustainability, Edited by R.J. Berry, Published by Inter-Varsity Press, 2007, Nottingham p43+